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Lithium: Shaping markets for a green future

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Global Mining Review,

In the March 2021 issue of Global Mining Review, Mark Upton, Malin Purba, Sri Sekar, and Joseph Figueiredo from Deloitte provide a comprehensive overview of the future of lithium, and the effect of renewable energy and electric vehicles on the lithium mining industry. This special report lists all the references contained within that article.


  1. International Renewable Energy Agency, ‘The True Cost of Fossil Fuels: Saving on the Externalities of Air Pollution and Climate Change,’ May 2016.
  2. International Renewable Energy Agency, ‘Renewable Energy Statistics 2020,’ July 2020.
  3. US Energy Information Administration, ‘How much of world energy consumption and production is from renewable energy?,’ (Accessed 5/2/21).
  4. WOODWARD, M., WALTON, B., and HAMILTON, J., et. al., ‘Electric vehicles: setting a course for 2030,’ Deloitte,
  5. RUNKEVICIUS, D., ‘As Tesla Booms, Lithium Is Running Out,’ Forbes,
  6. CHATZKY, A. and MCBRIDE, J., ‘China’s Massive Belt and Road Initiative,’ Council on Foreign Relations,
  7. YUKUN, L., ‘BRI brings gains for mineral firms,’ China Daily,
  8. RAMOS, D., ‘Bolivia picks Chinese partner for US$2.3 billion lithium projects,’ Reuters,
  9. Institute for Energy Research, ‘China Dominates the Global Lithium Battery Market,’
  10. KIM, T. and KARPINSKI, M., ‘Clean energy progress after the COVID-19 crisis will need reliable supplies of critical minerals,’ International Energy Agency,
  11. MCCORMICK, M., ‘US urged to subsidise electric cars on national security grounds,’ Financial Times,
  12. United States Geological Survey, ‘Lithium.’
  13. Economist, ‘The white gold rush: A battle for supremacy in the lithium triangle,’
  14. Reuters, ‘Nine countries join US strategic minerals initiative,’
  15. VALLE, S., ‘Vale dam-break trauma raises level of ESG funds in Brazil,’ Reuters,
  16. ZOEBELEIN, K., ‘BMW Group commissions study on sustainable lithium extraction,’ BMW Group,
  17. ESSBAUER, S., ‘Securing raw material supplies for battery cells: BMW Group signs supply contract with Ganfeng for sustainable lithium from mines in Australia,’ BMW Group,
  18. Institute for Energy Research, ‘The Environmental Impact of Lithium Batteries,’
  19. KINCH, D. and HOLMAN, J., ‘New lithium supply chains could slash sector emissions by nearly a third: Roskill,’ S&P Global,
  20. FAWTHROP, A., ‘Scientists claim lithium brine extraction breakthrough that could cut the process to hours,’ NS Energy,
  21. DRAPER, R., ‘This metal is powering today’s technology – at what price?,’ National Geographic,
  22. US Department of Energy, ‘Research Plan to Reduce, Recycle, and Recover Critical Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries,’
  23. Reuters, ‘Australia’s Piedmont signs lithium ore supply deal with Tesla, shares surge,’ Reuters,
  24. SHEPARDSON, D., ‘Biden vows to replace US government fleet with electric vehicles,’ Reuters,
  25. US Federal Register, ‘National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of the Proposed Fiscal Year 2022 Annual Materials Plan,’

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